Believe it or not, even though I was one of the participant in the standardization of ERC-721, the Ethereum standard for NFTs, I had never read the final standard, yet alone written an ERC-721 smart contract. At the time I was against the standard, at least in its form, due to its collision with the ERC-20 standard (you can't create a smart contract that is both a compliant ERC-20 token and a compliant ERC-721 NFT). My arguments ended up losing, ERC-721 was standardized with the same function names as ERC-20, and I heard that today another standard is surfacing (ERC 1155) to fix this flaw (among others).
Anyway, I recently decided to bury the hatchet and read the damn standard. And after a few weekends of hacking with my friends Eric Khun and Simon Patole, we wrote an ERC-721 compliant dapp as an art project. It's called project memento and it boasts a grid of tiles each containing a letter, a-la million dollar page. People can acquire letters, alter them, and form lines (or diagonals) of words together. I'm curious as to what will become of this, but this was fun!
Today I received the first copy of my book Real-World Cryptography! You can't imagine how much sweat and love I put into this work in the last two years and a half. It's the book I've always wanted to read, and it's the book I thought the field was missing. It's the book I wanted to have as a student when I was learning about hash functions and ciphers, and it's the book I wish I could have referred to my fellow pentesters when they had questions about TLS or end-to-end encryption. It's the book I'd use as a developer looking for cryptographic libraries and best practice. It's the first book with a cryptocurrency chapter, and it's the book cryptographers will read to learn about password-authenticated key exchanges, sponge functions, the noise protocol framework, post-quantum cryptography, and zero-knowledge proofs. Real-world cryptography is what the field of applied cryptography really looks like today. It's all there.
If you've been following my blog recently, you must have seen that I joined O(1) Labs to work on the Mina cryptocurrency. Why? Simply because I felt like it was the most interesting project in the space, and now that I'm deep in OCaml and Rust code trying to understand PLONK and other state-of-the-art zero-knowledge proof systems work I can tell you that it is indeed the most interesting project in the space :)
My two zero-knowledge friends are too busy doing a PhD. They like self-inflicted pain. (Mathias and Michael, I'm looking at you.) So if you're free, ping me! And if you're not free, ping me anyway because we might be able to work something out.
In this eleventh video, I go back to the PLONK protocol and finally explain how it works with polynomial commitments. This version of the protocol is not finished, as it doesn't have zero-knowledgeness (the polynomial evaluations leak information about the polynomials) and the wiring (or copy constraint) has not been enforced (e.g. the output wire of this gate should be the left wire of this other gate). In the next video, I will explain how copy constraints can be enforced via the PLONK permutation argument.
In this tenth video, I explain how the Kate polynomial commitment scheme works. For more information about it, check this other blogpost I wrote. This polynomial commitment scheme will be useful to force the prover to commit to its polynomials before learning the random point they need to be evaluated at.
In this ninth video, I explain what polynomial commitment schemes are as well as their API. I also mention the Kate polynomial commitment scheme (KZG), based on pairings, and bootle/bulletproof types of polynomial commitments schemes, based on inner products.
In this eighth video, I explain how the prover and the verifier can perform a "polynomial dance" in order to construct the circuit polynomial $f$. The principle is simple: the prover doesn't want to leak information about the private inputs and the intermediary values in the circuit, and the verifier doesn't want to give the prover too much freedom in the way they construct the circuit polynomial $f$.